Carnation is commercially one of the most important flowers in India. The flowers fetch very good return for the small growers also. Any individual can start carnation cultivation by two ways. These are outside farming and another is protected farming or greenhouse farming. In starting this business, the primary criteria is the land. And your farm size and production capacity will depend on the area of land you have.
The scientific name of carnation is Dianthus caryophyllus. And it belongs to Caryophyllaceae family. The major carnation growing countries are the Colombia, Netherlands, Kenya, Turkey, Morocco, Ethiopia, Egypt, Ecuador, Italy and Spain. In India, several states produce carnation commercially both for the domestic and international markets.
Economic Importance Of Carnation Cultivation
Carnation is one of the most important cut flowers in the world. Additionally, these are excellent for cut flowers, bedding, pots, borders, edging and rock gardens. The reasons include the excellent keeping quality, the wide range of forms, ability to withstand long-distance transportation and remarkable ability to rehydrate after continuous shipping.
Generally, western countries sell cut flowers throughout the years. However, the demand grows in the specific festivals like Valentine’s day, Easter, Mother’s day and Christmas. In India, places having the cool climate like Shimla Kulu, Manali, Kalimpong, Ooty Kodaikanal, Bangalore, Pune, Nasik, etc. are most suitable areas for the production of cut flowers. And the flower has huge export potential. The main exporting countries are Holland (70%), Columbia (9.2%), Israel (5.8%), Italy (4.9%), Spain (2.3%), Kenya (1.4%) and the Canary Islands (1.1%).
Things To Consider In Commercial Carnation Cultivation
- First of all, according to the availability of the land identify your business size. Additionally, you must craft a comprehensive carnation cultivation business plan. Mention, business objective, growing method, marketing plan and investment cost.
- Variety plays an important role in commercial carnation farming business. Therefore, you must choose the right variety for this flower.
- Generally, carnation is a winter season flower. So agroclimatic condition plays a major role. You can’t grow carnation anywhere.
- Furthermore, you must prepare to provide proper irrigation, nutrition and plant protection for getting a better yield.
- Finally, packaging and storage play important role in enhancing the shelf life of the flowers. Additionally, if you want to export the flowers, you must take special care after harvesting.
Best Varieties For Carnation
Generally, you can divide carnation varieties into two main groups:1. Standard
1. Standard varieties:
The standard carnation has one large flower on an individual stem. It was the first type of carnations used for large scale production.
2. Spray varieties:
The spray carnation has several shorter branches with the smaller flower on each branch. These varieties were developed less than 50 years ago in the United States.
|Standard Carnation||Spray Carnation|
|White sim||Karina Hilkari|
|Pallas Londorga||Barbara Hibacer|
|Nora Barlo||Bagatel Wesbag|
|Tanga Lontarion||Eveline Hilsucces|
|Manon Korosa||Silvery Pink|
|Candy Klekopi||Lior Aroiler|
|Candy Klemaxi||Salmony Stasalm|
|Sarina Lonseva||Starlight Hilstar|
Border carnation: Madonna, King Cup.
Perpetual flowering Carnation: Arthur sim, Willam sim, Allwood’s crimson,
Ancient Rose, Canadian pink.
Marguerite or Chabaud Carnation: Aurora, Marie, Nero, Marguerite white, M. yellow.
Agroclimatic Condition For Carnation Cultivation
Temperature influences the growth and flowering of carnation majorly. You can produce the best quality carnations in areas with high light intensity during winter. At the same time, the mild temperatures during summer months. Generally, carnation prefers moderate temperatures. The temperature at night is very important for quality. Higher day and night temperatures especially during flowering results in abnormal flower opening and calyx splitting. However, the ideal day and night temperature is 28 C and 16 to 18 C, respectively.The carnation is a facultative long day plant, which means that they
The carnation is a facultative long day plant. Generally, the plants form the flowers faster during long days than in short days. Carnations require high levels to produce high-quality flowers. Cyclic lighting from dusk to dawn increases the flower fresh weight and the strength of flower stalk. Additionally, the hot and humid climate is not suitable for carnation cultivation.
Suitable Soil For Carnation Farming
Carnations do well in well-drained soil rich in time and sunny situation. Carnations are great favorites for pot cultivation. Deep planting, water logging and mulching with manures are harmful as those may cause stem or collar rot.
Carnation Cultivation Basic Steps
Generally, carnation propagates by three ways. These are from seed, layering, and cutting.
Marguerites or Chabud type is best raised from seed. The border carnation propagates from layering. (Curring usually do not root easily). And perpetual carnation propagates from stem tip cutting.
Planting & Care
Before planting, prepare the bed carefully. Carnation crop has the tendency to bend unless supported properly. Hence the crop needs support while growing. The good support material is metallic wire woven with nylon mesh.
During the first three weeks after planting, you will need overhead sprinklers to prevent young plants from drying out. Afterward, it is possible to gradually change to drip irrigation (2 tubes per bed).
You must test the soil before. And according to the reports, plan about the fertilization for your carnation farm. However, you must apply fertilizer early in the morning at 6 am for better utilization by the plants. Periodically clean the fertigation system to avoid any type of malfunctioning.
When the plants are about 20-25 cm long pinch about 7.5 cm of growing point just by bending near a node of with the help of shaving blade, as this encourages development of side shoots. About 3 to 6 shoots are retained for flowering.
Harvesting & Yield
The best time of harvesting is in the morning. In addition, you must cut the stem smoothly to avoid injury to flower stem or to the mother plant. Usually, you can cut the stems with a sharp knife. Cutting is faster when both hands can be used, one to cut and the other to hold and remove the flower stem. In addition, you can pick the flowers 2-3 times a week. Blooming period is 3-4. In commercial carnation cultivation, you can expect the yield per plant of 70 to 100 flowers, 10-12 lakhs of flowers per ha.