Colored capsicum is also popular as bell pepper and sweet pepper. Here in this article, we intend to explore how to start commercial colored capsicum cultivation for profit. The content includes open fields, under greenhouse, and polyhouse technology.
Basically, capsicum is an important ingredient in cooking. Generally, it comes under spice segment. The method of growing capsicum is simple. And farming under controlled atmosphere brings more yield and profit than the open field.
Generally, green, orange, yellow and red are the most common and popular types of capsicum you can find globally. Also, there are bell peppers in chocolate, brown, vanilla, lavender, white, and purple color. However, the color variety depends on the time of harvest and degree of ripening. When you harvest the bell pepper early then it is green capsicum.
Red, orange, and yellow bell peppers are always more ripe than green ones. Therefore, they require more tone on the ground before they can be harvested. Hence, colored capsicum comes as more costly than the green one.
The scientific name of bell pepper is Capsicum Annuum. And it belongs to Nightshade family. It is rich in vitamin-A, C, and minerals.
Why is Colored Capsicum Cultivation Profitable?
Simply, there are several reasons that bell pepper cultivation is a highly profit making business. If you have sufficient land (at least 1 acre), you must think growing capsicum. However, the business demands moderate cash investment for getting maximum profit.
- First of all, colored capsicum is a high-value vegetable. So, it ensures the lucrative revenue return.
- You can store this item in the cold storage facility for maximum one month.
- Additionally, you can grow the capsicum throughout the year under the protected structure.
- Finally, organically grown colored capsicums fetch the high profit. Basically, these are the perfect items for selling from shopping malls, supermarkets, and online marketplaces.
Economic Importance of Colored Capsicum
Globally, you can find capsicum farming in the most of the parts. Especially, you can find in the temperate regions of Central and SouthAmerica and European countries, tropical and subtropical regions of Asian continent mainly in India and China.
Nowadays, due to increasing demand by urban consumers, the more farmers are showing interest. Coloured capsicums are in great demand in urban markets. The demand is mostly driven by hotel and catering industry.There is a good demand for export too. However, the export market needs fruits with longer shelf life. Also, it needs medium size, tetra lobed fruits with an attractive dark color, mild pungency and good taste.
Different Regional Names of Colored Capsicum
- ‘Shimla Mirch‘ in Hindi
- ‘Pedda Mirappa‘ in Telugu
- ‘Kuda Milagai‘ in Tamil
- ‘Parangi Mulagu‘ in Malayalam
- ‘Donne Menasinakai‘ in Kannada
- ‘Bhopli Mirchi‘ in Marathi
- ‘Simla Marchan‘ in Gujarati
- ‘Simla Mirch‘ in Bengali.
Health Benefits of Colored Capsicum
- First of all, bell peppers contain plenty of vitamin C. However, you can find the highest amount of Vitamin C in the red variety.
- Additionally, colored capsicums contain several phytochemicals and carotenoids, particularly beta-carotene.
- Additionally, these are the good source of Vitamin E. Actually, the Vitamin E is known to play a key role in keeping skin and hair looking youthful.
- Also, it contains vitamin B6, which is essential for the health of the nervous system and helps renew cells.
- Red bell peppers help in activating thermogenesis and increase the metabolic rate. Hence, it supports weight loss.
Things to Consider in Commercial Colored Capsicum Cultivation
- In commercial cultivation, the production method is the most important aspect you need to consider carefully. Generally, polyhouse or greenhouse farming ensures better yield and profitability. However, it demands an upfront capital investment for infrastructure building. And if you want to start with low investment, then you can consider open field cultivation.
- Secondly, you need to arrange proper irrigation facility. Drip irrigation is the most suitable way of watering in colored capsicum cultivation.
- Additionally, you must provide the proper care and management to the farm. And plant protection is the most important part of that.
- Finally, colored capsicums are highly perishable items. So, you must arrange proper post-harvest management for reducing the loss.
Best Varieties for Colored Capsicum Cultivation
Regardless the production technology you opt for capsicum farming, you must choose the variety very carefully. Most of the capsicum hybrids produce green fruits that mature to red, orange or yellow depending on the hybrid.
However, the fruits must have uniform size and shape preferably four lobes, fruit weight of >150g. In addition to that, they must in uniform color after attaining complete maturity, with a better shelf life of more than 5 days under ambient conditions. Also, you need to select the variety that ensures high yield.
Some of the most popular commercial hybrids in India include Indra, Yamuna (Green); Bombay, Triple star, Natasha, Inspiration, Passarella (Red); Sunnyez, Swarna, Orobelle, Bachata (Yellow).
Suitable Soil for Colored Capsicum Cultivation
In commercial farming, you must select the site very carefully. Even, if you don’t have own land, you can consider having the land on rent. In that case, you must have the rent agreement at least for 4 to 5 years. Because you must use the greenhouse or shade net infrastructure completely.
Places having high rainfall and humidity are not suitable for its cultivation since this encourages many foliar diseases. Also, the areas with high wind velocity are not suitable since they are likely to damage the structure and the polyethylene sheet frequently, thereby enhancing the maintenance cost of the structure.
Generally, colored capsicums prefer well drained sandy loam soils having good percolation. The soil pH of 6 to 7 and EC < 1 mm hos/cm is ideal for growing capsicums.
Colored Capsicum Production Technology
This is the most common practice among the small and marginal farmers. The traditionally grown green capsicum, depending upon variety and season, usually yields 20-40 tons per hectare in about 4-5 months.
In the greenhouse, the crop duration of green and colored capsicums is about 7 -10 months and yields about 80-100 t per hectare. Generally, the greenhouse farming protects the fruits from rain, wind, high temperatures. Hence, it helps to minimize the damage of insect pests and diseases thereby improving the quality and yield.
Generally, using shade nets for creating net house is a cost-effective method than the greenhouse. Over the GI wire grid, you can fix 50% HDPE white shade net to support another layer of shade net (green or black with 35% shade), which is movable or retractable.
Poly house gives better protection compared to the net house due to total avoidance of rainwater entry into poly house. Hence leaf diseases can be easily controlled. Yield is normally 15-20% more in poly house compared to the et house. Generally, you can use GI pipes for the polyhouse construction.
Colored Capsicum Farming Basic Steps
First of all, you need good quality seeds for producing quality seedlings. Generally, you need about 16,000 to 20,000 to plant one acre. And for which, you need 160-200 gm of seeds. Seeds germinate in about a week’s time after sowing.
You need to prepare the land properly. Generally, you can apply well decomposed organic manure at the rate of 20-25 kg per sq meter with soil. Between the beds, provide walking space of 45 cms to 50 cm.
You need to apply fertilizer according to the soil testing report of the land. Sometimes, it needs applying base fertilizer for effective result. Before transplantation, you can also consider applying neem cake.
Generally, drip irrigation is the most effective way of watering in the commercial farming. However, you can go for other options too. Apply irrigation according to the specific requirements of your area.
First of all, apply water in the land before transplanting. Basically, you can use seedlings of 30-35 days old for transplantation. Ensure that roots are not getting damaged in time of transplantation.
In commercial farming, you must provide proper plant protection care and management. Identifying the diseases and pest attacks in the early time is highly important. Some of the most potentially harmful pests and insects are Thrips, Mites, Aphids, Fruit borer, Nematodes etc. Some of the diseases that affect frequently are Damping off, Powdery mildew, Cercospora leaf spot, Phytophthora, Viral Diseases etc.
Harvesting & Yield of Colored Capsicum
Generally, the early morning hours are best suited for capsicum harvest. You can harvest the green capsicum at 55 to 60 days after transplanting, yellow capsicum at 70-75 days whereas red capsicum at 80-90 days. After harvest, you must keep the fruits in a cool place to avoid direct exposure to sunlight.
There are several options available for packaging. You can pack the graded colored capsicum either in CFB cartoons or by shrink wrapping. However, you need to provide proper packaging according to the transportation and storage requirements.