Any individual can start commercial rose cultivation by two ways. Open field and greenhouse. However, you can go for greenhouse option for quality rose production as the cut flower. Rose comes with the different variety, colour, and size. Commercial rose cultivation is a profitable business. In addition, the business demands small startup capital to initiate a rose farm.
The scientific name of the rose is Rosa. And it is a perennial shrub or vine of the Rosa genus and the family Rosaceae. In India, the major rose producing states are Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and West Bengal.
Economic Importance Of Rose Cultivation
There are several value-added products you can produce from the rose. These are rose oil, rose water and gulkhand. Furthermore, fresh roses have good domestic and international market. In addition, roses are essential items in preparing bouquets, floral arrangements, worship, social occasions and presentation of gifts. However, cut rose ranks first in terms of volume of trade in the international market. Only the production of high quality flowers at low cost can stand upto international competition.
Things To Consider In Commercial Rose Cultivation
- First of all, determine for what purpose you are growing rose. Because it determines the rest of the factors.
- Secondly, choose the right variety.
- Have a marketing plan.
- Craft a business plan including the financial inputs. In addition, calculate an expected ROI from your rose farm.
- Arrange proper irrigation system.
- Check every input is ready with you for the application.
Best Improved Varieties For Rose Cultivation
- Floribunda: This variety comes with short flower and shorter stems. However, it yields much higher than other types. Ex. Kiss, Florence, Frisco, Mercedes.
- Hybrid Tea: This variety comes with a large flower and long stems. In addition, this variety fetches more profits than others. Ex. Melody, Darling, Sonia, Vivaldi.
- Spray: This variety carries 5 to 6 flowers on a single stem. However, the steam yields low. Ex. Nikita, Evelien, and Joy.
Some of the popular hybrid varieties are Gladiator, Baby Pink, Sofia Lawrence, YCD 1, YCD 2, YCD 3.
Agro Climatic Condition For Rose Cultivation
First of all, you must provide plenty of light, a humid and moderate temperature ranging from 15°C to 28°C. If you are growing under the greenhouse, you must provide ventilation. Light is an important factor. It decides the growth of the roses. Furthermore, you can find a slower growth by day length with 12 hours and heavy overcast, cloudy/misty conditions. High relative humidity exposes the plant to serious fungal diseases. In tropics, the ideal temperature is 25°C – 30°C on a sunny day and on a cloudy day 18°C – 20°C.
Suitable Soil For Rose Cultivation
Rose grows well in the plains under ideal condition of fertile loamy soils with salt-free irrigation water. Well-drained soil rich in organic matter and oxygen is good for roses. Organic matter as high as 30% in the top 30 cm of the growing beds is perfect for rose farming. In addition, you must maintain a pH of the soil around 6 to 6.5.
Rose Cultivation Basic Steps
First of all, you must prepare the beds or pits before one month of planting. The suitable depth of the bed is 60 to 90 cm. Fill the pit with a mixture of soil and farmyard manure. Flood the bed with water to settle down the loose soil. Add more mixture of soil and manure for leveling the bed.
The most popular propagation options are root cutting and budding on Briar rootstocks. Before planting remove all dried, dead, damaged and diseased twigs, leaves and damaged root coming out of earth ball etc with sharp secateurs.
The newly planted rose need frequent watering till they establish and afterwards once or twice a week. You must do weeding and hoeing after every alternate watering. In addition, all roses require pruning in the second year of their planting and subsequent years. After 6 months or so, there is every chance that the soil becomes stony. Therefore, you must loose the soil for efficient irrigation.
The removal of leaves is known as defoliation. However, you must do it to induce certain plant species to flower or to reduce transpiration loss during periods of stress. In addition, you can remove the leaves manually or by withholding water.
Plant Protection System In Rose Cultivation
The principal pests of roses are Red spider mite, Leaf rollers, White fly, Thrips, Aphide and Nematode. The principal diseases are Powdery mildew, Downy mildew, Botrytis, Pruning die back and Black leaf spot. However, the attcks depen on the variety and agroclimatic condition. You will need to prepare with the intensive protection system.
Harvesting & Storage In Rose Cultivation
You can harvest the flowers with sharp secateure at the tight bud stage when the colour is fully developed. In addition, you must keep at least 1 to 2 leaves with The plant after the cutting. Because it helps to encourage production of new strong shoots. Furthermore, you must harvest preferably during early morning hours.
Ideally, roses immediately after harvest should be graded, packed, precooled and despatched by refrigerated vehicle. In case of delay in grading and packaging flowers are shifted to the cold store. Before shifting to the cold store, it is advisable to re-cut the stems, about 2 cm. above the previous level without removing lower leaves/thorns and again place them in clean containers in clean warm (40-480C) water, adjusted with citric acid to pH 3.0-3.5. This treatment prevents vascular blockage and hence neck drop.