Tuberose is commonly popular as Rajanigandha. It is a native to Mexico. Any individual can grow tuberose under greenhouse condition and open sky both. Here in this post, you will get a detailed discussion about how to start commercial tuberose cultivation business.
The scientific name of tuberose is Polianthes tuberosa. And it belongs to Amaryllidaceae family. Basically, it is half-hardy, perennial, bulbous plant. Bulbs come with scales and leaf bases and stem remains concealed within scales. Roots are mainly adventitious and shallow. Additionally, flowers have a funnel-shaped perianth and are fragrant, waxy white, about 25 mm long.
Basically, both the tropical and sub-tropical countries grow this flower. South Africa, North Carolina, USA, and India are the major growers of tuberose. In India, states like Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, and West Bengal grow the flower commercially.
Economic Importance Of Tuberose Cultivation
Generally, tuberose cultivation is more expensive than the major competing crops. However, the return is also higher than the competing crops. Additionally, the flower has the great economic potential for cut flower trade as well as for essential oil industry.
Basically, the flowers are the essential items for making artistic garlands, floral ornaments, bouquets, and buttonholes. The long flower spikes are excellent as cut flowers for table decoration. It is also a popular cut flower, not only for use in arrangements but also for the individual florets that can provide fragrance to bouquets and boutonnieres. The flowers emit a delightful fragrance. Therefore, the flowers are the source of tuberose oil. The flowers contain about 0.1% oil. And it is used in high-value perfumes and cosmetic products.
Things To Consider In Tuberose Cultivation
- The primary requirement is land. You must have sufficient are of land for tuberose farming business.
- Determine whether you want to grow the flowers under greenhouse or open sky condition.
- Generally, the major cost includes the hiring of labor and procuring agricultural inputs. And these costs depend on the area of cultivation.
- If you are starting as large-scale, you must have the arrangement to preserve the flowers.
- It is important to have a clear marketing plan for the business.
Best Varieties For Tuberose Cultivation
Broadly, tuberose comes with four different varieties. These are single, semi-double, double and variegated. Find here some of the most popular varieties under every segment.
In this segment, the flowers come with one whorl of the corolla. These are highly scented. This type of flowers is popular for concrete extraction. Basically, you can expect .08 to .11% oil. Loose flowers are used for making floral ornaments. Some of the most popular varieties are single, Kalyani Single, Shringar, Prajwal, Rajat Rekha, Hyderabad Single, and Calcutta Single.
It bears two to three whorls of petals. Additionally, you can use the flowers both for concrete extraction as well as cut flower.
This group comprises of varieties with more than three whorls. You can use the flowers mainly as cut flower and for bouquet purpose. The main varieties are Double, Kalyani Double, Swarn Rekha, Hyderabad Double, Calcutta Double, Vaibhav & Suvasini.
Rajat Rekha: It falls under single flowered type with silvery white streak along the middle of the leaf blade. You can get 0.089% oil concentration in this flower.
Swarna Rekha: It comes as the double flowered type with golden yellow streaks along the margins of the leaf. Additionally, you can expect concentrate content up to 0.062%.Shringar
Shringar: This variety comes as a cross between ‘Single x Double’. It bears the single type of flowers on sturdy spikes. It is resistant to Meloidogyne incognita nematode. Loose flowers are ideal for making the garland. On the other hand, you can use spikes as cut flower. Both the farmers and perfumery industries prefer this variety.
Suvasini: Basically, it is a multi whorled variety. Additionally, it comes as the cross between ‘Single’ x ‘Double’. The flowers are pure white, bold and big. Spikes are best suited as cut flower. Suvasini recorded 25% more yield than cv.
Prajwal: This hybrid variety bears single type flowers on tall stiff spikes. It comes from the cross ‘Shringar’ x ‘Mexican Single’. The flower buds are slightly pinkish in color while the flowers are white. It yields 20% more loose flowers than ‘Shringar’.
Vaibhav: This hybrid variety bears semi-double flowers on medium spikes. It comes from the cross ‘Mexican Single’ x IIHR – 2. The flower buds are greenish in color in contrast to pinkish buds in ‘Suvasini’ and ‘Local Double’. It yields 50% higher compared to ‘Suvasini’. It is the perfect choice for cut flower purpose.
Agroclimatic Condition For Tuberose Cultivation
The plant is tropical to semi-tropical. Basically, it needs warmth, the sunshine, high relative humidity, well-drained soil, and even moisture. The commercial cultivation of tuberose is mainly confined to warm, humid areas with average temperature ranging between 18 to 32° C. The ideal temperature for plant growth ranges between 26 and 30° C. The tuberose needs a long growing period in order to blossom in early to late fall.
Suitable Soil For Tuberose Cultivation
Successfully, you can grow the plant on a wide range of soils, even in soils affected by acidity or alkalinity to some extent. The plant is very sensitive to water-logging. Basically, it damages the root system and affects the plant growth. Loam and sandy loam soil having pH range of 6.5 to 7.5 with proper aeration and drainage are considered best for tuberose cultivation. The soil must have rich organic matter and retain sufficient moisture for proper growth.
Commercial Tuberose Cultivation – Basic Steps
Land Preparation & Spacing
Deep ploughing is the must for right soil preparation. Additionally, you can apply well rotten cow dung or farmyard manure, at the rate of 50 tons per hectare. You can plant the bulbs at a spacing of 30×20 cm or 20×20 cm at a depth of 4-6 cm. For one acre area, it requires 40,000-50,000 bulbs for the planting of tuberose.
Tuberose propagates from bulbs. In general, bulbs having the diameter between 1.5 and 2.5 cm are suitable for planting. Additionally, you will need to arrange about 1.25-1.5 lakh bulbs (800-900 kg) for planting one hectare of land.
Soil testing is the must before the plantation. And according to the report, you will need to plan for the nutrient management. Generally, you can apply 20 tonnes FYM + 100 kg N + 50 kg P2Os + 50 kg K20.
Tuberose requires adequate moisture supply for the luxurious growth of the plant. After rains, you must maintain proper frequencies of irrigation to keep the soil moist.
You must control the weed of the farm. You can do weeding after a fortnight, especially in the initial stage of the bulb sprouting and the growth of plants. Hand weeding is eco-friendly but extensive. For chemical control, you can apply Atrazine.
Harvesting & Yield
Each spike produces 16-20 florets out of this terminal 3-4 pairs of florets are very small and of no use. After the harvesting of flowers, flowers are placed in the shade in wet cotton cloth or in a gunny bag cloth after the harvest of flowers the spike should be cut off.
3-4 months after planting tuberose starts flowering. Summer and rainy seasons are the peak period. Bulb once planted gives the commercial yield up to 3 years. Generally, you can expect 6000 to 10000 kg flowers from the first year. And from the second year, you can harvest 20 tonnes/ha of bulbs from commercial tuberose cultivation.