Jasmine is a popular flower worldwide. The scientific name of jasmine is Jasminum. And the flower belongs to olive family Oleaceae. However, you can find more than 80 species. Some of the other popular names are Juhi, Jui, Malle Mokggu, and Mullai. The flower has great commercial values and market potential. Generally, it is a bushy shrub or a climbing vine and is non-poisonous. Any individual can start jasmine cultivation by two ways. One option is the open field and another is under poly house condition. However, poly house jasmine cultivation is a better proposition for quality flower production. Here in this post, we intend to explore how to start a small scale jasmine cultivation business.
Economic Importance Of Jasmine Cultivation
A substantial amount of jasmine flowers go to the market for fresh usage. You can find several fresh flower usage like making garlands, bouquet, decorating hair of women, religious offering etc. Additionally, there are several jasmine varieties that are beneficial for oil extraction. There is a potential number of usage in the flavoured tea industry. You will find a lot of flavoured jasmine tea, herbal tea and black tea etc. The oil is an essential item in the perfumery and cosmetics industry such as creams, oils, soaps etc. Furthermore, apart from the domestic market, jasmine flower and oil have good export market potential globally.
Medicinal Values Of Jasmine
- The jasmine lotion helps to reduce the skin problems like sunburns and rashes.
- The juices of the flower restores the skin’s moisture and elasticity, reducing the appearance of wrinkles and giving the skin a healthier look and feel.
- In addition, you can find a wide use of jasmine in aromatherapy.
- Jasmine as an essential oil has many beneficial uses. It is an anti-depressant, aphrodisiac, and even as a medicine to help users sleep better.
- Jasmine is also a wonderful massage oil.
Things To Consider In Commercial Jasmine Cultivation
- First of all, you must craft a business plan for jasmine farming. According to the area you have to plan in detail.
- Create detail financial planning including input costs like labour, seed, manure, irrigation and transportation.
- You must keep in mind the marketing avenues. Simply where to sell the jasmine flowers.
- If you want to export your flowers, then contact with the authority and flower growers associations.
- Ensure that you can arrange adequate irrigation during the summer season.
Best Varieties For Commercial Jasmine Cultivation
You can find a number of jasmine varieties. Some of the important Jasmine species are Jasminum sambac, Jasminum Auriculatum, Jasminum Grandiflorum and Jasminum Multiflorum.
Jasmine Sambac: It is popular as Arabian Jasmine, Tuscan Jasmine, Bela, Belphool, Malliage and Mogra. It is the most common species in India. The leaves are simple, opposite,almost smooth with prominent lateral veins. Its important varieties are:Motia,single Mohra, Double Mohra,khoya,Rai Japanese and many more. Jasmine sambac
Jasmine Grandiflorum: It is popular as Royal or Spanish Jasmine,French or Catalonian Jasmine, Chameli, Jahi, Jajimalli, Mallai and Pitchi. In addition, the flowers are white, often tinged with purple outside, axillary or terminal and 5 petalled. They are suitable for planting in shrubbery, arches and pergolas.
Agro Climatic Condition For Jasmine Cultivation
First of all, you can grow jasmine in a variety of climate and soils. Generally, it prefers mild tropical climate for proper growth and flowering. Additionally, wild winter, warm summer, moderate rainfall
and sunny days are ideal climatic requirement. Loamy garden soils are best suitable for cultivation of all species and varieties. Furthermore, a well-distributed annual rainfall of 800 to 1000 mm is best fot thr growth and yield.
Jasmine Cultivation Basic Steps
Land Preparation & Planting
First of all, you will need to do one or two initial ploughings to remove the weeds present in the land. In addition, you must dig the pits at a size of 30cm. Furthermore, you will need to apply 10 kg of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) to the each pit before filling the pits. You can start planting during June-November at a spacing of 1.5m x 1.5m.
Moderate watering is good for jasmine. However, you must apply the water twice a week if there is no rain. You can stop watering completely until pruning and fertilizer application. There is an interval of about a month between one bloom and the commencement of the next.
It is recommended that you must apply 10 kg of FYM and 60 g of Nitrogen and 120 g each of Phosphorus and Potassium to each plant. And you must apply in two split doses i.e., once after annual pruning and again during June-July.
Pruning encourages growth of new healthy shoots. Also it influences flower yield in Jasminium grandiflorum. It is advisable to prune the plants during the last week of November to get increased yield and quality flowers.
Pests: Bud worm, blossom midge and red spider mite are the major pests of jasmine. Spraying of monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 2ml /l is recommended to control bud worm and blossom midge. To control the red spider mite, you can spray sulfur (50% WP) @ 2g / l.
Diseases: Nematode and root rot are the major diseases attacking the jasmine crop. Control measures for Nematode – 10 g of Temic granules/plant near root zone and for Root rot – Drench the soil around plant with Copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g / l .
Harvesting & Storage
Jasmine begins to flower second year onwards or sometimes even earlier. However, you can expect economic yield from the third year. It produce maximum flower till 12/ 15 year.
You will need to harvest the flowers either in the evening or early in the morning when the buds are fully developed. In addition, you will need to handle the flowers with full care during harvesting and transit. To increase the self life of the flower you can soak the buds in aluminium sulphate(0.1%) or silver nitrate (0.01%) solution for two hours. Then cover with moist towel and keep under room temperature.
Export Packaging Of Jasmine Flower
You can expect best return and profits from the export. However, for that it requires special packaging technology for the export transportation. Different countries maintain different technology for the flowers. major export markets are Dubai and USA. The flower needs special treatment for increasing the shelf life and preservation.
Packaging flow-chart for Dubai
Fresh flowers → Jasmine flowers to strings → Jasmine strings treatment with floral preservative → Packing in ventilated corrugated fibre board (CFB) boxes with butter paper lining → Airlifting to Dubai.
jasmine cultivation gives inspiring margin to even small farmers. So, if the agroclimatic condition of your locality fits with, you can start commercial jasmine growing for profits.