Papaya is a very popular fruit. You can harvest papaya throughout the year. It is popular worldwide. Because it gives quick returns. It is originated from tropical America. The scientific name is Carica papaya. Another regional name is papaw or Papita. Papaya plays an important role in food processing industry. Furthermore, there are numerous industrial and processing applications other than fresh consumption. Papaya gains popularity also in kitchen gardens. Papaya has huge commercial importance because of its high nutritive and medicinal value. Commercial papaya cultivation is a profitable business. You can start papaya farming with a small piece of land. Major commercial papaya producing countries are India, Mexico, Brazil, Indonesia, Nigeria, China, and Thailand. Therefore, papaya becomes the fifth most commercially important fruit of India.
Papaya Cultivation Business Plan
You must do an economic analysis to verify the use of various inputs of production and the income obtained. In papaya cultivation, fixed costs are initial land development. Additionally, the fixed cost includes wages of permanent labour and repair of farm equipment and other miscellaneous costs. The variable cost consists of production practices and input costs including the FYM, fertilizer, and pesticides. Additionally, it includes the wages for hired labour for irrigation, inter-culturing, harvesting, handling, and transportation and other management practices. Calculate the total cost of production. Calculate projected profitability and ROI. Profitability = Total Apprisal Value – Input Cost
Different Application Of Papaya
- Ripe papaya is usually consumed fresh as a breakfast or dessert fruit
- There are different types of food processing opportunities such as jams, fruit juices, and ice cream.
- Furthermore, papaya is also consumed as a dried fruit.
- Culled fruits can be fed to pigs and cattle.
- Papaya is an ingredient in a variety of cuisines throughout the world. Unripe fruits and leaves are consumed as vegetables.
- Another popular item is tutti frutti from papaya. This is very popular in bakery and confectionery.
- Papain is a milky latex collected by making incisions in unripe papayas. The latex is either sun-dried or oven-dried and sold in powdered form to be used in beer clarifiers, meat tenderizers, digestion aids, wound debridement aids, tooth-cleaning powders, and other products.
Health Benefits Of Papaya
- Papayas are rich in fibre, vitamin C, and antioxidants that prevent cholesterol build up in the arteries.
- One medium sized papaya contains just 120 calories. So, it helps in weight loss activity.
- A single papaya can fulfil more than 200% of your daily requirement of Vitamin C, making it great to build a stronger immune system.
- Papayas are low in sugar content (8.3 gm in one cup of sliced papaya) as well as a glycemic index. This property makes papayas excellent fruits for diabetics.
- Papayas are rich in Vitamin A and flavonoids like beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin and lutein which keep the mucous membranes in the eyes healthy.
- Papaya is rich in several nutrients like Vitamin C which can keep you free from stress.
Improved Varieties For Papaya Cultivation
Some of the popular varieties are Honey Dew, Coorg Honey Dew, Washington, Solo, Co-1,Co-2, Co-3, Sunrise Solo, Taiwan etc. Other improved varieties are
- Washington: It comes fairly true to type from seed. Fruit is round to ovate in shape, and with excellent sweet taste and flavour.
- Honey Dew or Madhu Bindu: It has good flavour and taste of fruit with less number of seeds. The bearing is heavy with long fruits in clusters.
- Coorg Honey Dew: This is a variety from Chethalli station of the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research.
- Solo: This is a famous variety from Hawaii islands. The fruits are small (0.5 to 1 kg) and pear shaped.
- C0-1 and Co-2: Tamil Nadu Agricultural University has invented these varieties. Both varieties are famous for their dwarf stature.
- Ranchi: It performs well under north Indian conditions. It is highly valuable in respect of yield and quality. It bears large fruits on plants of a medium height.
- Barwani: It is a popular variety in central India, especially in Indore area with large fruits.
Additionally, there are several other new varieties such as Pusa Delicious, Pusa Majesty, Pusa Dwarf, Pusa Giant, etc.
Agro Climatic Condition For Papaya Cultivation
Papaya is a tropical, plant. However, it also grows well in sub-tropical parts. It is very sensitive to frost. Optimum temperature is 25 – 30° C and minimum 16° C. The suitable ph value is between 6 and 6.5. Those foothills which enjoy a mild winter are ideal for papaya cultivation. Low temperature and frost limit its cultivation in higher altitudes. Excessively cold nights cause the fruits to mature slowly and to be of poor quality in winter season.
Suitable Soil For Papaya Cultivation
The most suitable soils type is well-drained or sandy loam soil with adequate organic matter. Sticky and calcareous soils are not good as rainwater may accumulate in the soil. As a result, this may fatal for the plants. In this case, you must arrange for higher raised bed and drainage ditch. Furthermore, you must keep the field with suitable soil moisture which is necessary for the growth of papaya plants. Also, dry climate at the time of ripening is good for the fruit quality. Additionally, continuous cropping in the same field may result to poor growth. Hence a slightly sloppy land is preferred to a perfectly leveled one. Hilly soil of this region is best suited, being well drained in organic matter.
Papaya Cultivation Basic Steps
You will need to propagate papaya is from seed. First of all, you must collect the seeds. You can collect from ripe, large sized, healthy fruits, essentially from female plants free from pests and diseases. Sometimes, the seeds fail to germinate because seed viability is completely lost in about 45 days.
The optimum temperature is 21 – 27° C, and of radical emergence is 19 – 29 °C. it takes 1 – 4 weeks from sowing to emerge depending on the temperature. Treat the seed with Thiram (TMTD) W.P. before sowing to control the fungus diseases at the young stage.
You can use the transparent plastic bag in 8 – 9 cm wide and 8 cm wide and 8 cm high or black soft plastic pot for raising seedlings. The bags must have the drainage hole. Also, you can use the plastic seedling tray. This is a new way of seedling culture to obtain the healthy seedlings.
When the seedlings are 15 to 20 cm tall, the bag is cut open with a razor blade. Now the seedlings are ready for transplantation in the pits in the evening. Therefore, you can plant three seedlings about 15 cm apart in each pit. Watering is essential after transplantation for a quick recovery from the transplanting shock.
The plant needs continuous fertilization, as fruiting is continuous upon maturity. You must plan for fertilization from the day 1. Because a five months period from transplanting to first flowering is important for nutrition of papaya plants. However, you must stop manuring 6 months before harvesting the crop.
The male plants of papaya are generally vigorous in growth and start flowering after three months of transplanting. As soon as their presence is detected, You must remove most of them. However, for effective pollination of female flowers, about one male tree is maintained for every 10 female trees. Papaya starts flowering about five to six months after it is transplanted.
Normally, irrigate every 10 days in winter or every week in summer. However, practise varies according to soil, climatic conditions, and irrigation methods. You can adopt ring method, furrow or drip irrigation. However, be sure to prevent the water from coming in contact with the stem. Irrigation may prevent the plants from the damage of frost.
Papaya Cultivation Plant Protection
You must du proper disease control to get the maximum yield. The main diseases are powdery mildew (Oidium Caricae), anthracnose (Colletotrichum Gloeosporioides), damping-off and stem rot. Another potential disease is Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)
You must remove weeds at the young stage frequently and lightly. However, never do deep tillage to the soil since the plant has shallow roots. You can apply herbicide once before emergency with 43% lasso E.C. at 1:200.
Harvesting In Papaya Cultivation
In general, papaya takes six months to flower. And another five for harvesting. However, it may vary according to the climate conditions and management. For shipping to the distant markets, the fruits should be harvested when the apical and starts turning yellow and the latex is no longer milky. During the cold months, the fruits can be left on the tree to develop deeper color and obtain better flavor. In papaya cultivation, a tree with good management produces 25 to 40 fruits weighing 40to 60 kg in the first 15 to 18 months.