Do you want to start a profitable chrysanthemum cultivation business? Find here, how to start chrysanthemum flower farming business with a small investment.
Actually, chrysanthemum is an important commercial flower crop. The flower has both the commercial and export potential. Additionally, the flower holds the third position in flower trade after Jasmine and rose.
The scientific name of chrysanthemum is Dendranthema Grandiflora. And it belongs to Asteraceae family. Actually, the flower is native to the northern hemisphere chiefly Europe and Asia. In the United States, it is the number one dollar earner flower and the most reliable.
Globally, some of the major chrysanthemum producing countries are Canada, USA, Mexico, Costa Rica, Colombia, UK, Ecuador, and Poland. In India, some of the major Chrysanthemum producing states are Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
Economic Importance of Chrysanthemum Flower
There are versatile uses of this flower. Generally, you can use the flower in the bed, as pot culture for garland making and also as cut-flower for flower arrangement. Actually, chrysanthemum flower is an important ingredient in the different type of flower decoration including backdrop, gate, tables etc.
In general, the large-flowered varieties are popular for exhibition purpose while small flowered varieties are for cut flower, making the garland, wreaths, Veni, and religious offerings.
Different Regional Names of Chrysanthemum Flower
- Guldaudi in Hindi
- Chandramalika in Bengali
- Samanti in the southern states
- Shevanti in Marathi
- Sevantige in Kannada
- Jamanthi in Malayalam
- Chandramukhi in Manipuri
Chrysanthemum Flower Best Varieties
Actually, it is hybrid between Angle x G.P.I. It flowers early (88 days). Generally, it bears white colored Korean type of flowers which fades to pink tinge. It is floriferous and produces 119 flowers per plant. Additionally, it yields 168 g of flowers/plant.The shelf life of flowers is 7.5 days.
Actually, it is a cross between Nanko x CO-1. This hybrid bears pompon yellow flowers. Additionally, it is superior in respect to plant height, a number of flowers per plant, flower size, flower weight, flower yield per plant and flowering duration. This is suitable for cut flower and loose flower purposes.
Generally, this variety requires about 121 days for flowering. Plants are about 65 cm tall and grow upright. Flowers are pompon type, snow white in color and small size. Its average yield is 32 quintals/ha.
Generally, this variety produces small size white decorative type chrysanthemum. It is a good cut flower and garland variety.
Generally, it is a small size, white anemone type mini chrysanthemum. It requires neither ‘pinching nor ‘staking. Its plants are 34.6 cm tall, 370 flower heads/plant. Flowers are white in color.
Actually, this is a cross between Flirt and Red Gold. It takes 127 days for flowering. It produces 143 flowers per plant. Flowers are white color having a pink tinge. The vase life is 11 days. It is suitable for loose flowers and cut flowers.
Basically, it is small, and double Korean type mini chrysanthemum. Plant heights 29.1 cm, 303 flower heads/plant, and floret color is a red-purple group.
Flowers purple in color & suitable for mini-culture. Flower length is 1.5 cm it weighs 0.4 g.
Large Flower Variety
a) White: Snowball, Kasturba Gandhi, Innocence
b) Yellow: Chandana, Sonar Bangla, Super Giant
c) Mauve: Mahatma Galidhi, Peacock, Raja
d) Red: Diamond Jubilee, Distinction, Alfred Wilson
2. Small Flower Variety (cut flowers)
a) White: Birbal Sarti, Apsara, Baggi, Pumima
b) Yellow: Nanako, Jayanti, Kundan
c) Mauve: Sharad Prabha, Nilima, Ajay
d) Red: Jaya, Flirt, Jubilee
Agroclimatic Condition for Chrysanthemum Flower
Basically, it is a short day plant. And it responds differently to varying climate conditions. Generally, it needs long days to attain sufficient vegetative growth and short days for flowers production. If long day condition prevails, chrysanthemum will remain in vegetative phase.
Temperature is another important factor after light among climatic factors. Actually, the temperature influences the growth and flowering behavior. Generally, the plant requires an optimum temperature of 15.6°C. The relative humidity of 70 to 90% is suitable for the plants.
Suitable Soil for Chrysanthemum Flower Farming
Generally, the plant prefers well-drained soil. Additionally, it prefers sandy loam of good texture and good aeration. Good amount of organic matter and pH of 6.5 is essential. Basically, it is a shallow fibrous rooted plant and is very sensitive to waterlogged conditions. Also, it is fairly drought tolerant.
Chrysanthemum Flower Farming Basic Steps
Generally, you will need to plow the field two to three times before preparation of beds for planting.
Chrysanthemum propagates vegetatively either by root suckers or terminal cuttings. However, terminal cutting is the best method to follow in commercial farming.
First of all, take about 5-7 cm long terminal cuttings from healthy stock plants. Then plant these cuttings in the sand in pots or beds and keep in the partial shade. Provide watering for 4-5 times a day. Rooting takes place within 3 weeks. Now, these cuttings are ready for transplanting. For better rooting, you can treat the cuttings with 2000 ppm IBA before rooting.
Generally, the frequency of irrigation depends on the stage of growth, soil and weather conditions. Additionally, you must maintain the proper drainage system for chrysanthemum grown both in beds and in pots.
By regulating the quantity and frequency of irrigation, you can influence the height and vigor of the chrysanthemum plant. However, you can follow the channel system water supply for irrigating the fields.
You must apply fertilizer according to the soil test report. However, you can apply farm yard manure for the best growth.
First of all, you must keep the field or greenhouse weed free. Generally, weeds deplete moisture and nourishment from plants. Shortly after cuttings are established, carefully scratch the ground to uproot the weeds when they are small. Generally, you can provide 2-3 hand weeding for proper growth of the plant. First weeding should be done one month after planting. Also, you can apply herbicide to control weeds from the field.
Harvesting & Yield
Depending upon the varieties plant start yielding flower after 3-4 months of transplanting. For cut flower purpose, you must cut the stem about 10 cm above the soil to avoid cutting into wooden tissue. Also, you can place the lower 1/3 of the stem in water to extend the vase life of cut flowers. The best way to protect the flowers is to sleeve the bunch with a transparent plastic sleeve. Generally, the correct stages of harvest depend upon the cultivar, marketing, and purpose etc.
Generally, you can harvest the flowers around 15 times. The yield ranges from 9 to 10 tonnes of loose flowers per acre.
Post Harvest Management of Chrysanthemum Flower
After harvest, you must cut the stem to equal length (90 cm is the standard). Then bunch the flowers in five put a rubber band at the base and slide them into a plastic sleeve. Finally, put the bunches in plastic buckets filled with water. Generally, you can store the mature chrysanthemum flower dry for 6-8 weeks at a temperature of 0.5 0 C.