Button mushroom is a speciality type of edible mushroom. Thus, this product has commercial value. The scientific name is Agaricus Bisporus. The commercial cultivation of this type of mushroom is practiced in almost seventy countries in the world. There are several processes you can adopt for the cultivation. However, in India there are two to three production technologies are available for commercial button mushroom cultivation.
Mushroom production is a growing business globally. As the demand is increasing from last few years farmers are getting inspiring profits from this product. In addition, mushroom cultivation is a matter of practice and technical knowledge with a high value of return in short time. Mushroom production has some key raw materials to get good yields. However, major essential three raw materials are the spawn, compost, and casing soil. And you can start this type of mushroom farming as small scale basis. Even you can start from your backyard or home.
Health Benefits Of Button Mushroom
- First of all, it reduces inflammation in arterial cells and prevents white blood cells from sticking to arterial walls. Furthermore, the researchers conclude that consuming button mushrooms may be a means to prevent heart disease.
- Secondly, scientists believe that it is the polysaccharide content of the mushrooms that is responsible for their immune-boosting ability.
- In addition, a healthy woman can eat less than 1/2 cup button mushroom to greatly reduce the risk of developing breast cancer.
- Finally, this vegetable contains high amounts of copper. In addition, they are rich with the nutrients like vitamins C, D and B; and the minerals selenium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, and zinc
Button Mushroom Market Potential
The easily saleable product is the fresh mushroom. However, canned mushrooms in brine solution have the potential retail values. This product has also longer shelf life. Mushrooms are highly popular in Asian countries such as China, India, and Japan. Asia holds the majority of the market share of the global mushroom consumption and is closely followed by North America and Europe. Europe is the leader in the mushroom production and processing. The global mushroom market has shown remarkable growth in the recent years and is also showing attractive market potential for the future. The major importer countries are USA, UAE, Russia, The Netherlands, Germany, UK, Switzerland, Denmark, Israel, and Sweden. However, increasing development of high-yield systems, rising saturation in demand, and consumer shifts towards value-added products are the major driving factors.
Components Required For Button Mushroom Farming
- Composting Unit
- Outdoor Phase-composting platform/indoor bunkers or aerated chambers
- Indoor Phase-in peaks heating/bulk past-chamber
- Peak heating chamber
- Bulk pasteurization chamber
- Cooling of compost in summer months a special requirement
- Casing pasteurization chamber
- Spawn unit
- Spawn laboratory
- Cropping unit
- Seasonal cropping rooms
- Environment controlled cropping rooms
- Environment control, air conditioning and forced air circulation
- Ancillary units
- Post harvest handling unit
- Pre-cooling chamber
- Canning hall with canning line
- Packaging room
These ae all essential items for establishing a full-scale commercial mushroom farming business with a processing unit. However, you can start only mushroom cultivation as small scale basis fro only fresh mushroom production.
Also Read: How To Start Mushroom Processing Business
Button Mushroom Cultivation Basic Steps
You can produce spawn from fruiting culture/stocks of selected strains of mushrooms under sterile conditions. However, stock culture demands laboratory operation. In that case, you can procure it from the other reputed source. Moreover, you must procure good quality spawns in terms of flavor, texture, and size. Apart from these, the spawns must have the potential for high yield and longer shelf life.
In compost preparation, there are two different types of methods. One is a short method of composting. And another is the long method of composting. The short method of composting consists the pasteurization phase. However, if the pasteurization facility is not available you can go for the long method of composting.
Spawing is the process of mixing spawns with the compost. In addition, there are three different types of spawning you can avail.
You can plant the lumps of spawn in 5 cm. deep holes made in the compost at a distance of 20-25 cm. Then you must cover holes with compost.
In this case, you can evenly spray the spawn in the top layer of the compost. And then mix to a depth of 3-5 cm. Then, you must cover the top portion with a thin layer of compost.
In this method you must mix about 3-4 layers of spawn with compost. Then cover it again with a thin layer of compost like in surface spawning.
After the spawning process is over, you will need to fill the compost in polythene bags. Then cover the bags with a newspaper sheet or polythene. The fungal bodies grow out from the spawn and take about two weeks (12-14 days) to colonise. In addition, you must maintain a temperature in cropping room about 23 ± 2° C.
The environmental conditions suitable for spawn run, are suitable for case run as well. You can apply a casing 3-4 cm thick layer of soil on the top of the spawn run compost. The casing soil before application should be either pasteurized (at 66-700 C for 7-8 hours), treated with formaldehyde (2%), formaldehyde (2%) and bavistin (75 ppm.) or steam sterilized. The treatment needs to be done at least 15 days before the material is used for casing.
Under favorable environmental conditions viz. temperature, moisture, humidity( above 85%), proper ventilation and CO2 concentration, the fruit body initials. Generally, it appears in the form of pin heads start growing and gradually develop into button stage.
Harvesting & Yield Of Button Mushroom
The first crop appears about three weeks after casing. And you can harvest the mushrooms by gently holding a mushroom body and twisting it. You can obtain about 10-14 kg. fresh mushrooms per 100 kg. fresh compost. However, the short method used for the preparation of compost under natural conditions gives more yield in button mushroom cultivation business.