Guava is a nutritionally valuable remunerative crop. People consume guava fruit both as fresh and processed. Commercial guava farming is a profitable agriculture business. Even it is profitable with a small piece of land. In addition, the startup cost is not high compared to other horticulture fruit crops. Here in this post, we intend to explore how to start a commercial guava farming business with small capital.
The scientific name of guava is Psidium guajava. And it belongs to the family of Myrtaceae. Guava is one of the most delicious and fascinating fruits for the consumers globally. Guava is a rich source of vitamin C and pectin. It is also a good source of calcium and phosphorus. In addition, in respect of productivity, it earns good revenue. Besides its high nutritive value, it yielded a heavy crop every year. In addition, it gives handsome economic returns involving very little inputs. That is why farmers are more getting interest for the commercial guava farming. However, you will need to adopt a precise management technique to produce a highly profitable crop.
Major guava producing countries are India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Mexico, Indonesia, and Brazil. Furthermore, major Indian guava producing states are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Orissa, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Guava is popular in the name of ‘Amrood’ in Hindi, ‘Jaamapandu’ in Telugu, ‘Koiya Pazham’ in Tamil, ‘Nattu Peraka’ in Malayalam, ‘SeebeKayi’ in Kannada, ‘Jam phal’ in Gujarati, ‘Peru’ in Marathi, ‘Amrud’ in Punjabi and ‘Peyara’ in Bengali.
Economic Importance Of Guava Farming
Guava has a great potential for extensive commercial production because of its ease of culture, high nutritional value, and popularity of processed products. The ripe fruit is popular as dessert. Furthermore, it has commercial application in making jellies, jam, paste, juice, baby foods, puree, beverage base, and syrup. Guava is also an essential ingredient in the wine industry and other processed products. In addition, some parts of guava tree have medicinal and commercial usefulness. The wood is moderately strong and durable indoor and useful in carpentry and turnery. U.S.A., U.A.E., Saudi Arabia, Netherlands, Kuwait, Jordan etc. are the countries importing guava from India.
Guava fruits have very short shelf life making it difficult for distant marketing. For long distance transportation, use of refrigerated transport and also proper packaging and cushioning material is required to enhance the shelf life of fruits.
Health Benefits Of Guava
- First of all, guava contains Vitamin C and it helps protect cells and lower cancerous damage to them.
- Guavas are rich in fibres. Fibre is important for lowering blood sugar levels.
- Guava is rich in vitamin A. Vitamin A or retinol is responsible for good eyesight.
- Guavas contain a mineral known as folate. It helps promote fertility in humans.
- Potassium in guavas helps normalise blood pressure levels.
- Guava is rich in magnesium which acts as a nervous relaxant. It helps to relax muscles and nerves of the body.
- Finally, it helps to keep your brain functions positive by maintaining good blood flow.
Things To Consider In Guava Farming
- First of all, you must have a proper guava cultivation plan before starting the plantation. It must include the input costs and financial fact sheet.
- Selecting the right variety is important.
- Furthermore, taste the soil, where you want to start guava farming.
- Plan accordingly for fertiliser application.
- Take care of post harvest management.
- Finally, you can adopt a high-density planting method to get maximum yield.
Best Varieties For Guava Farming
Allahabad, Lucknow 46, 49, Arka Amulya, Arka Mridula, Banaras, Baptla, Arka Kiran, Lalit and TRY (G)-1 are the suitable varieties for cultivation. However, the most popular guava cultivars are Lucknow 49, Allahabad Safeda and Harijha. Other varieties preferred by the farmers are Apple, Baruipur Local, Benarasi, etc. From the viewpoint of yield and quality, Lucknow-49 may be considered to be the most popular commercial cultivar. Different research institutes are making efforts to develop some new varieties and hybrids.
Agro Climatic Condition For Guava Farming
You can grow guava successfully under tropical and subtropical climate. In areas with the distinct winter season, the yield increases and the fruit quality also improves. It grows best with an annual rainfall of about 1000 mm restricted between June and September. However, the young plants are susceptible to drought and cold.
Suitable Soil For Guava Farming
Well drained soils are the best suited for guava cultivation. It can tolerate salinity and alkalinity. In saline soils add 3 Kg Gypsum/plant during planting and once in three years after planting to overcome the problem. However, the best soils are deep, friable and well-drained with a pH between 5.5 and 7.5.
Basic Steps For Guava Farming
First of all, you must deeply plough the selected field. In addition, harrow and level the field before planting. You can do soil sterilisation by both physical and chemical means.
Yo can maintain a spacing distance of 5-8 m. However, you must decide the exact planting distance according to variety, soil fertility and availability of irrigation facilities. By increasing the plant density, you can increase the productivity.
Guava plant propagates from seeds. Seedling trees produce fruits of variable size and quality although such trees are generally long-lived. However, you can also use vegetative methods. It includes cutting, air layering, grafting and budding are used for propagation of guava.
Guava plan doesn’t demand huge irrigation. However, in the early stage, young guava plants require 8 to 10 irrigations a year. Life-saving hand watering is necessary for summer season in dry areas and on light soils. Full grown bearing trees require watering during May-July at weekly intervals. Irrigations during winter reduce fruit drop and improve fruit size of winter crop.
Spraying the trees with 0.45 kg zinc sulphate and 0.34 kg slaked lime dissolved in 72.74 l (16 gallons) of water cures Zn deficiency. The number of sprays depends on the severity and extent of the deficiency. Pre-flowering sprays with 0.4% Boric Acid and 0.3% Zinc Sulphate increase the yield and fruit size. Also, you can spray copper sulphate at 0.2 to 0.4% to increases the growth and yield of guava.
Plant Protection System For Guava Farming
Tea mosquito bug, Aphids, Mealy bug and Fruit fly are some of the potential harmful pests for guava. You must adopt proper pest management system.
On the other hand, the most damaging diseases in guava are wilt and anthracnose. Cancker, cercospora leaf spot, seedling blight. etc., are some other important diseases.
Harvesting & Yield In Guava Farming
You can not retain the fruits on the tree in the ripe stage. On maturity, you must pick it immediately. Guava is ready for harvest as soon as the deep green colour turns light and a yellowish green patch appears. However, individual hand picking at regular intervals avoids all possible damage.
The yield varies in different cultivars and with care and management of the orchard, age of plant and season of cropping. However, you can a yield as high as 350 kg from grafted plants and 90 kg from the seedling tree.
You must arrange proper post harvest management system. The fresh fruit has a short shelf life. However, you can extend the shelf life up to 20 days by keeping them at a low temperature of 50 C and 75-85% relative humidity.