Do you want to start a commercial dairy farming or cattle farming business? Find here a detailed dairy farming project plan guide for your ready reference.
Basically, commercial dairy farming is a wonderfuly opportunity of self employment. Additionally, the business allows you to start the venture with small capital investment also. Even, you can start the farming with two milking buffelo. In addition to that, you can operate a small-scale farming as part time also.
Basically, the agricultural activity is seasonal. Additionally, it depends on the agroclimaic condition and many other external factors. Hence, you can expect a sustainable income throughout the year from your dairy project.
Things to Consider in Starting Dairy Farming Business
In starting the business, you must consider several aspects carefully.
- First identify a location for your dairy project. And you have to select an area which is not under the municipal corporation. Because, most of the urban municipality doesn’t allow dairy farming for the environment reason.
- According to your investment capacity, you must have a project report. It is must. Otherwise, you can’t control the several issues that may affect the profitability of the project.
- Additionally, you have to procure good quality dairy breed cows for your farm.
- Identify the nearby Veterinary Hospital, Artificial Insemination Center/livestock Aid Centers, MPCS. Before commencing the farm, have a talk with them.
- Identify the market. You must have a clear marketing plan for your dairy produces.
- Finally, you must have the basic skills about cattle farming. Definitely, you will operate the farm with some skilled manpower. However, having basic knowledge will make you confident about the entire operations.
Finance for Dairy Farming Business
According to your investment capacity, plan the financial resources. And there are several options for this. If you are an absolute beginner, then it is better to start the business with your own finance. However, you can avail the bank loan also. In India, you can avail NABARD subsidy for your farm.
NABARD is an apex institution for all matters relating to policy, planning and operation in the field of agricultural credit. Basically, it serves as an apex refinancing agency for the institutions providing investment and production credit. It promotes development through formulation and appraisal of projects through a well organised Technical Services Department at the Head Office and Technical Cells at each of the Regional Offices.
However, for applying the subsidy, you have to have a project report. You have to include information on land, livestock markets, availability of water, feeds, fodders, veterinary aid, breeding facilities, marketing aspects, training facilities, experience of the farmer and the type of assistance available from State Government, dairy society/union/federation.
Start Dairy Farming Project
After getting the land and finance ready, you can start the farm operation. First of all, you have to establish the housing for buffelows and other spaces. Generally, it is better to start a farm with the land for fodder farming. You can start a medium size commercial farm with 2 acre of land. Generally, you have to provide a 40 Sq Ft space for an adult animal and 20 Sq Ft space for each calf.
Housing for Dairy Farming
Housing is a basic important aspect in the entire farming operation, And you have to arrange it properly. You must provide an efficient, well planned and adequate housing for the cattles. Improper planning in the arrangement of animal housing may result in additional labour charges and that curtail the profit of the owner.
During erection of a house for dairy cattle, you must take care to provide comfortable accommodation for an individual cattle. Additionally, you have to take considerations the proper sanitation, durability, arrangements for the production of clean milk under convenient and economic conditions, etc.
Selection of Breeds
Proper selection is the first and the most important step in dairying. Cross-breed animals with exotic inheritance of about 50% are preferable. This preference is based on comparison of the performance of the animals with different percentage of exotic inheritance. Fifty percent of the native germplasm is helpful to retain the adaptability, heat tolerance and disease resistance traits of local animals, in cross breeds.
Therefore, selecting the right breeds is very crucial in this business. Basically, select the breed on the basis of breed characters and milk producing ability. You can also check the history sheet or pedigree sheet. Additionally, you must select an animal during First or Second lactation and that too are month after calving.
Feed and fodder production for livestock feeding is an important aspect for the sustainability of the system. You must grow fodder for the animals. However, fodder cultivation depends on the several aspects. These are soil type, irrigation source, land topography, labour availability and daily fodder requirement. Accordingly, you have to craft a fodder plan.
Dairy cows and buffaloes of an average body weight of about 500 kg require between 12.5 to 15 kg of dry matter (DM) daily. However, you can prepare this DM through green fodders, concentrate mixture and dry roughages. Preferably two-thirds of the total requirement of dry matter should be met through seasonal cereal and leguminous green fodders and dry roughages. For better productivity, feed the both cereal and leguminous fodders in 50 : 50 ratio.
Cow & Calves Management
You must take proper care for the cows and calves. Some of the major aspects include, cleaning, feeding, vaccination, milking etc. However, there are some activities that you have to perform daily basis. Here, we have compiled some of the basic routine operations.
- Cleaning/brushing of milch animals
- Feeding half of the daily concentrate ration just before milking.
- Milking cows.
- Delivery of raw milk (in cans) to the milk pick-up van of dairy plants and receiving previous day’s empty cans.
- Washing and disinfection of milking barns.
- Cleaning of milk cow sheds.
- Feeding of dry/green fodder to milch stock.
- Cleaning farm premises.
- Isolation of sick animals.
- Isolation of “in-heat” cows for artificial insemination
- Cleaning calf, maternity, dry-stock, bullock and bull sheds.
- Feeding half of the daily concentrate ration to calves, pregnant cows and bulls.
- Exercising and grooming of bulls.
- Treating sick animals.
- Breeding cows that are “in-heat”.
- Harvesting, chaffing and feeding of green fodder to all the stock. Mangers in all sheds should be filled with green fodder.
Basically, you can carry out these activities by employing skilled manpower. And as the owner of the farm, you have to concentrate on the marketing aspects, profitability and definitely expansion of your dairy farming business.