Do you want to start quail bird farming? Find here a detailed guide for starting a profitable commercial quail farming business as your ready reference.
Basically, commercial quail farming is raising quail birds for the purpose of producing eggs and meat. The farming process is easier than chicken farming. Additionally, you can rear quails in almost all types of weather conditions.
Quail generally survive for 3 to 4 years. An adult quail weights between 150 to 200 grams. Female quails start laying eggs from 6 to 7 weeks of age. Each egg weighs between 7 to 15 grams. They lay more than 300 eggs per year.
Actually, the quail is a small bird. The Hindi term for quail is Bater. The bird belongs to the Pheasant family. In general, you can find two different species in India. One is the black-breasted quail found in the jungle (Coturnix Coromandelica) and the brown-colored Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica). The second species is suitable for commercial rearing. Generally, the Japanese quail weighs up to 250 gm and lays 250 eggs a year.
Why Is Quail Bird Farming Profitable?
- First of all, a quail farm requires minimum floor space
- Additionally, the business demands low capital investment
- Quails are comparatively sturdy birds. Therefore, they don’t demand much care.
- You can start getting the return within a very short period of time. You can market quail birds at an early age ie. five weeks.
- Additionally, quail birds get early sexual maturity. The bird starts laying eggs at about six to seven weeks of age.
- Quails have a high rate of egg-laying -280 eggs per year
- Quail meat is tastier than chicken and has less fat content. It promotes body and brain development in children.
- Nutritionally, the quail eggs are on par with chicken eggs. Moreover, they contain less cholesterol. Additionally, meat and eggs are nutritious diets for pregnant and nursing mothers.
Nutrition Value in the Eggs & Meat of Quail Bird
Quail egg is roughly one-fifth the size of a chicken’s egg and weighs around 10gm. You can find several spots in the eggshells of different colors ranging from white to brown. Nutritionally, the quality of these eggs is at par with that of chicken eggs; rather they contain less cholesterol. The proportion of yolk (the yellow inside part) to albumen (the white part), at 39:61, is higher compared to chicken eggs.
The Composition of Whole Quail Bird Egg
- Water: 74%
- Protein: 13%
- Fat: 11%
- Carbohydrate: 1%
- Total ash: 1%
- Calorific Value: 649 k J/100g liquid
License for Quail Bird Farming Business
Basically, quail is a protected species. And you need to obtain a government license to sell it commercially. In India, the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairy and Fisheries are responsible for granting such a license as delegated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
The validity of the license up to one year from the date of issue. For obtaining the licenses you have to produce original documents for identities such as Ration Card, Driving License, Election I-card, or Valid Identity card. Additionally, you have to submit the fees for different purposes. These are Rs. 200/-, 500/-, 500/- & 1000/- each purpose respectively for farming, Trading, catering & Hatchery. However, you can renew the license before the expiry of the current license with the requisite fees.
According to the rule, you have to purchase quails from a license holder. The issuing authority can inspect the facilities available at the site anytime during the period of the license. Additionally, the authority can cancel the non-functional license.
Where to Start Quail Bird Farming
You must establish the farm at not less than 4.5 to 5.0 km. away from the notified forest area if there is no human inhabitation in between. Additionally, the farm must have a distance of not less than 2.5 to 3.0 km away from the wildlife & forest area where there is human habitation between the farm & the forest/ wildlife notified area.
You must strictly observe biosecurity measures particularly hygiene & sanitation within enclosures & provide basic health coverage for the birds. And you must not allow the birds to roam the open outside enclosures. Finally, the farm must have adequate fencing around the farm/ building to avoid entry of stray animals & for the public to come in direct contact with birds.
Create a Quail Bird Farming Business Plan
Starting a quail farming business demands a lot of serious considerations even if you start on a small-scale. Therefore, you must have a business plan or project report before starting the business. Generally, a business plan provides you with the blueprint of the entire business lifecycle. In addition, it helps to get loan and financial subsidy assistance from the Govt. departments.
In crafting the project report, first, identify the land area you have and your investment capacity. According to that, prepare the project report scheme.
Basically, you can start quail bird farming in two ways. The first option is procuring the egg-laying birds. You collect the birds and after hatching, you get the chicks. The second option is you procure the chick from reliable sources and start rearing it. If you are an absolute beginner in this business, you must go for the second option.
Quail Bird Species
At present there are 18 species of quails are available. Basically, these are very suitable for a profitable quail farming business. Some of these breeds are famous for egg production and some are popular for meat production. According to your end product demand, choose the right quail breeds.
Layer Quail Breeds
- British Range
- English White
- Manchurian Golden
Broiler Quail Breeds
- Bobwhite (American)
- White Breasted (Indian)
Cage Design for Quail Bird Farming
You can rear quail birds in two ways. The first option is on the floor under a deep litter system. And another is under the cage system. In the deep litter system, one Sq Ft area is sufficient for 6 quail birds. After 2 weeks, you can rear quails in cages. This helps to gain good body weight.
In the cage system, you have to provide each unit about 6′ in length and 1′ in width, and subdivided into 6 subunits. To save space, you can arrange the cages up to 6 tiers high. There can be 4 to 5 cages in a row. Additionally, fix the bottom of the cage with removable wooden plates to clean the bird droppings. Place the long narrow feed troughs in front of the cages.
Feed Management for Quail Bird Farming
For better productivity and body weight, you must provide nutritious food to the birds. Additionally, you must prepare the feed materials of small particles. Generally, a 5 weeks old quail consumes about 500 gms of feed. And quails of 6 months old, consumes about 30-35 gms of feed per day. Basically, the quails require about 400 gms feed for the production of 12 eggs.
Quail Bird farm & Chicks Management
You have to provide a clean and well-managed farm condition for a better result. Usually, quails lay eggs in the afternoon. It takes about 17 days to hatch their eggs. A newly born quail chick weighs around 6 to 7 grams. Quail never incubate their eggs. For the successful breeding purpose, keep one male quail with every five female quails.
The day-old quail chicks usually weigh 8-10 g. Hence, quail chicks need more temperature. The absence of adequate temperature and exposure to high-speed cool wind leads to the clustering of young ones, which results in high mortality.
We, at Agrifarmingbiz.com, can help you in starting a commercial quail farm. The range of our services includes preparing the project report, preparing the scheme for getting the loan from the banks, and identifying the marketing avenues in your area. You can send us an inquiry for professional services for establishing a quail bird farm.